Glycan signatures in rheumatic diseases and their associated functional implications

The addition of sugars to a protein structure can influence the stability of the protein, interactions of receptors with ligands and activity of signaling pathways. This modification, called glycosylation, is linked to inflammation and disease progression. A new paper explores the understanding of glycosylation in a range of rheumatic diseases and indicates the potential for … Read more

Memory B and T cell responses differ when induced by SARS-CoV-2 infections or booster vaccinations

In a recent study published in The Journal of Immunology, a team of researchers from Japan examined the memory B and T cell responses to the spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after the booster dose of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccine BNT162b2. They also … Read more

Nanoparticles displaying SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 peaks induce broad antibody responses in animal models

A recent study published in the journal iScience reported that nanoparticles (NPs) displaying spike proteins from different sarbecoviruses together enhance the breadth of neutralizing reactions. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are based on the spike protein of the Wuhan-Hu-1 strain, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Mutant variants of SARS-CoV-2 are less sensitive … Read more

The relationship between neutralization levels and observed efficacy against asymptomatic and symptomatic infection of ten COVID-19 vaccines

In a recent study published on the medRxiv* server, researchers determined whether levels of neutralizing antibodies (NAb) were predictive of the efficacy of fractional vaccine doses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Study: Predictive efficacy of vaccine dose fractionation using neutralizing antibody levels. Image credit: Background During the 2016 yellow fever … Read more

Hope for a new treatment on the horizon for the Zika virus

Bitten by an Aedes mosquito. This species can transmit diseases such as chikungunya, dengue and zika. … [+] Credit: NIAID (Photo by: IMAGE POINT FR/NIH/NIAID/BSIP //Universal Images Group via Getty Images) BSIP/Universal Images Group via Getty Images Researchers at Duke University, UC Berkeley, Purdue University and elsewhere have likely made a major breakthrough in the … Read more

Approved and development of passive and active immunizations against respiratory syncytial virus in childhood and pregnancy

In a recent study published in Journal of Pediatricsresearchers investigated active and passive childhood vaccination against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Study: Current strategies and perspectives for active and passive immunization against respiratory syncytial virus in childhood. Image credit: ART-ur/Shutterstock Background Despite the global importance of RSV infections in children, only one monoclonal antibody, Palivizumab, has … Read more

How gut microbes influence the immune response to SARS-CoV-2

An article published in Critical Assessments in Food Science and Nutrition journal reviews the role of the gut microbiota in shaping the host immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Study: Gut microbiome and antiviral immunity in COVID-19. Image credit: Design_Cells / Shutterstock Background SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the 2019 coronavirus … Read more

Research findings may bolster the effectiveness of immune checkpoint therapy

Immune checkpoint inhibitors like Keytruda and Opdivo work by unleashing the immune system’s T cells to attack tumor cells. Their introduction ten years ago represented a major advancement in cancer therapy, but only 10% to 30% of treated patients experience long-term improvement. In an article published online today in The Journal of Clinical Research (JCI), … Read more

Hemagglutinin strain immunogens may hold the key to broad protection against influenza A viruses

In a recent article published in Immunityresearchers suggested that vaccines targeting the immunosubdominant but conserved hemagglutinin (HA) strain could elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza A viruses. Study: Co-immunization with hemagglutinin strain immunogens elicits cross-group neutralizing antibodies and broad protection against influenza A viruses. Image credit: pinkeyes/Shutterstock Background Influenza viruses are highly contagious respiratory … Read more

Is the transfer of placental antibodies after COVID-19 vaccination different from that after SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant individuals?

In a recent study published in the JAMA network opened, researchers examined the placental transfer rates of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in pregnant women. They did this in two cohorts of pregnant women; the first cohort had women suffering from natural SARS-CoV-2 infection and the other cohort had vaccination against coronavirus … Read more